Ötzi, de gletsjerman

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Ötzi, de gletsjerman

Bericht  Grendel op do 05 feb 2009, 19:03

LONDON (Reuters) – "Otzi," Italy's prehistoric iceman, probably does
not have any modern day descendants, according to a study published
Thursday.



A team of Italian and British scientists who sequenced his
mitochondrial DNA -- which is passed down through the mother's line --
found that Otzi belonged to a genetic lineage that is either extremely
rare or has died out.



Otzi's 5,300-year-old corpse was found frozen in the Tyrolean Alps in 1991.



"Our research suggests that Otzi's lineage may indeed have become
extinct," Martin Richards of Leeds University in Britain, who worked on
the study, said in a statement.



"We'll only know for sure by sampling intensively in the Alpine Valleys where Otzi was born."



The findings published in the journal Current Biology reverses
previous research from 1994 on a small section of Otzi's DNA that
suggested the so-called "Iceman" had relatives living in Europe.



But Richards and colleagues said their analysis confirmed that Otzi
belonged to a previously unidentified lineage that has not been seen to
date in modern European populations.



Scientists were thrilled to find Otzi's mummified body had remained
frozen, and so almost perfectly preserved, for more than 5,000 years.



An arrowhead was found in his left shoulder, suggesting Otzi did
not simply freeze to death while climbing the high mountains. Evidence
shows he was likely a hunter.



(Reporting by Michael Kahn; Editing by Maggie Fox and Richard Williams)

Bron: http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20081030/sc_nm/us_iceman_children;_ylt=AhfN5sqzdi8yU9DBgx7D8kwhANEA


Laatst aangepast door Grendel op vr 06 feb 2009, 11:35; in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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Re: Ötzi, de gletsjerman

Bericht  Grendel op do 05 feb 2009, 19:04

Researchers have revealed the complete mitochondrial genome of one of
the world's most celebrated mummies, known as the Tyrolean Iceman or
Otzi. The sequence represents the oldest complete DNA sequence of
modern humans' mitochondria, according to the report published online
on October 30th in Current Biology, a Cell Press publication.



Mitochondria are subcellular organelles that generate all of the
body's energy and house their own DNA, which is passed down from mother
to child each generation. Mitochondrial DNA thus offers a window into
our evolutionary past.



"Through the analysis of a complete mitochondrial genome in a
particularly well-preserved human, we have obtained evidence of a
significant genetic difference between present-day Europeans and a
representative prehistoric human - despite the fact that the Iceman is
not so old - just about 5,000 years," said Franco Rollo of the
University of Camerino in Italy.



The Tyrolean Iceman witnessed the Neolithic-Copper Age transition
in Central Europe more than 5,000 years ago. His mummified corpse was
recovered from an Alpine glacier on the Austro-Italian border in 1991.
In 2000, scientists defrosted the Iceman's body for the first time and
sampled DNA from his intestines.



Earlier study of the DNA showed that he belonged to the lineage, or
"subhaplogroup," known as K1. About 8% of modern Europeans belong to
the K haplogroup, meaning that they share a common ancestor, and that
group is divided into two "subhaplogroups," K1 and K2. The K1
haplogroup, in turn, can be divided into three clusters.



In the new study, the researchers took advantage of advanced
genome-sequencing technologies to shed more light on the Iceman's
genetics. They sequenced his entire mitochondrial genome and compared
that sequence to other published human mitochondrial DNA sequences to
construct his evolutionary (or phylogenetic) family tree.



"The surprise came when we found that the lineage of the Iceman did
not fit any of the three known K1 clusters," Rollo said. His team has
informally named the newly discovered branch on the human family tree
"Otzi's branch."



"This doesn't simply mean that Otzi had some 'personal' mutations
making him different from the others but that, in the past, there was a
group - a branch of the phylogenetic tree - of men and women sharing
the same mitochondrial DNA," Rollo said. "Apparently, this genetic
group is no longer present. We don't know whether it is extinct or it
has become extremely rare."



At least for the moment, he said, that means no one can claim to be "the issue of Otzi."



----------------------------

Article adapted by Medical News Today from original press release.

----------------------------



Source: Cathleen Genova

Bron: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/127631.php
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Re: Ötzi, de gletsjerman

Bericht  Sibbevader op do 29 jul 2010, 14:05

The secret of Otzi about to be revealed



Ötzi
has not been put on ice, on the contrary things are hotting up for him.
For the first time in his eventful history since his discovery almost
twenty years ago, we now have access to the complete genetic profile of
this world famous mummy. As a result the path is clear for an imminent
solution to many of the puzzles surrounding the iceman.

Experts
from three institutions have pooled their skills in order to map Ötzi's
entire genetic make-up: Albert Zink, Head of the EURAC Institute for
Mummies and the iceman, together with Carsten Pusch, from the Institute
of Human Genetics at the University of Tübingen and Andreas Keller from
the bio-technological firm "febit" in Heidelberg. Together they have
reached a historic moment in the study of the 5,000 year old mummy. The
two scientists, Zink and Pusch, have been working together for some time
and recently published, in collaboration with the Egyptian team led by
Zahi Hawass, the latest findings on the life and the medical condition
of Tutankhamen and his family.
Running a joint project
with bioinformatics expert Andreas Keller turned out to be an ingenious
stroke of luck for the two human biologists. Andreas Keller was able to
make available the most up-to date sequencing technology, which the
scientists then used to decode the millions of building blocks which
make up Ötzi's genome, and this in turn enabled them to achieve results
which, using previous procedures, would have taken several decades to
complete. They extracted a bone sample from the pelvis of the ice mummy,
and with the aid of the revolutionary SOLiD sequencing technology from
the "Life Technologies" company created a DNA library which contains by
far the largest DNA data set ever recovered from the iceman.
This
work on the iceman turned out to be a ground-breaking activity for the
research team, as this was the first time that this newly developed
technology was used on Ötzi. "We are dealing here with old DNA which in
addition is heavily fragmented", explains Albert Zink, who is entrusted
with the care of Ötzi. "It was only by using the very latest technology
with its low failure rate that we scientists were able to decode Ötzi's
DNA in its entirety within this short space of time."
The
most exciting part of their work is yet to come. The scientists are
about to process the enormous quantity of bio-data now available to them
which should contain the answers to a great many questions. Are any of
Ötzi's descendants still around today and if so, where might they be
found? Can any genetic mutations be observed between earlier and present
day populations? What conclusions about today's genetic diseases and
other prevalent illnesses such as diabetes or cancer can be drawn from
the examination of Ötzi's genetic make-up, and his predisposition to
various types of ailments? What benefits can be derived from these
findings for our own study of genetic medicine? Next year, we shall
celebrate the 20th anniversary of Ötzi's discovery. The scientists will
mark this occasion by presenting their data analysis as well as the
resulting conclusions. We are eagerly awaiting this event.

Archeaology Daily

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